IOT: More than just things

The Internet of Things is a nascent market where organizations can get connected with human among physical objects, setting up cloud-connected devices which allow to send and receive orders or data (Jackson, 2014). It also refers to a dramatic development to the functions of Internet which enables communication through sensored networks (Ferber,2013).

In fact, according to the Ferber’s projections, 75 percent of the world populations will have access to the Internet and more than six billion devices as interconnected global system includes goods, objects, machines, appliances, buildings, vehicles, animals, people, plants and soil (Barrett, 2012). Specifically, they are including computer networks, sensors, actuators and devices which use Internet protocols and also referred to as the next generation of Internet (Ferber, 2013).

What is more importantly influential to us is, the Internet of things has changed our lives of living when ‘things’ are connected with the Internet and become active (Julian Bleecker). There’s a short video clip of how IoT changes our lives without saying a yes to them.

However, due to the Internet of things has a dramatic effect not only on our daily routines but also governance. The United State is now advocating a new data-based way to play a new rule or regulation to their citizens as governance which defined as ‘algorithmic regulation’ (Morozow, 2014). The cases of accidents or cars stolen have gradually increasing, referring to the database from Sperry Rand Corporation. The technology pioneers in the US are considering to build a built-in mechanism in cars markets in order to stop vehicles remotely. Jim Farley,  a senior of Ford executive says that,

“we know everyone who breaks the law, we know when you’re doing it. We have GPS in your car, so we know what you’re doing. By the way, we don’t supply that data to anyone.”

What they are really doing is that, they get ‘smart’ in cars and roads where the authorities can prevent the crime instead of waiting you as drivers to break the rules. The United States works with other organizations such as Ofcom envisions which promises a central control of traffic system which can impose variable speed limits to smooth the flow of driving or to manage the speed of accelerating (Morozov, 2014).

In April, Apple technology deploys a chip or sensor into the smartphones to analyse if the car is moving and if the person is using phone while driving. This functions when two actions are met at the same time, it simply blocks the texting features of smart phone. Furthermore, Intel and Ford are working on the face recognition of the drivers whether to prevent the car being used or in order to send a picture of owners to activate the car engines (Morozov, 2014).

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The Act Of Cyber War – Russia and Ukraine

Cyberwarfare is the word used politically to define the most aggressive attacks on the Internet as a form of hacking secret security or important information from the government or countries. On the other words, it can be defined as an activity by national army which uses the Internet as digital battle or an invasion of another country (Paganini, 2013).

It is believed that cyberwarfare is necessary to be defined as model of conflict (Paganini, 2013).  According to Paganini, almost every countries are now investing in cyber capabilities in order to protect and defence for unpredictable future cyberwar. For better explaining the acts of cyber war, the Estonia’s government networks in 2007 was a great example, an offense occurred in a period of intense political contrasts with Russia (Financial Times).

However, there is a recent cyberwarfare from Russian and Ukraine. According to a reporter’s from Texas cyber security firm that a group of Russian hackers exploited Microsoft Windows to keep tracks or spy on Nato and other targets. The hackers also not only attacks a telecommunications firm from French but also an unknown Western European government and an organization in U.S. (iSIGHT, 2014).

“Sandworm Team” is monitored by iSIGHT whose group has been started nearly 5 years ago which impacting all versions of Microsoft Windows (Ward, 2014). Moreover, it is discovered that the hackers prefer to target victims by sending virus as a file which infects the computers once it’s opened which is called “spear-phishing attack”(Jones, 2014).

Furthermore, CNN’s Richard Quest interviews McAfee CEO Michael DeCesare in the face of growing cyber security concerns in Ukraine about whether or not the Russians are really using cyberwar to attack. It discusses that how Russians forces jam phones and block Internet.

According to the report of iSIGHT, a number of attacks have been observed and specific to the Ukrainian conflict with Russia to geopolitical issues. Therefore, Microsoft now released an update to fix security flaw to minimize any future attacks (Jones, 2014).

Why Do We Hack? #opPakistan

Hacktivism is defined as the use of digital tools which to break censorship controls from seeing and knowing certain information (Vamosi, 2011). The hackers- a group of online anonymous attacking one’s website by exposing names, addresses and contact information of officers, releasing data of someone’s else or from national security including names, statistics, passwords and releasing one’s bank records from political departments or politicians (KP&FATA, 2014). In fact, hacktivism has been an increase against the multinational organizations on sites as leaking confidential information and documents.

Thanks to the effort of Edward Snowden’s, the role of hacktivism has been praised worldwide. However, hacktivism has been applied to against on governmental organizations and laws enforcement agencies whose attacks can actually affect millions of people. Nevertheless, online attacks are illegal but the kids do not seem to care while social media has been  great tools for revolutions. For example, Arab Spring is a good example of hacktivism which a group of anonymous created the environment from Wikileaks and a decentralized organization by posting secret information of government online (Vamosi, 2011).

A group of hackers calling themselves “Anonymous Op Pakistan” brought down numerous governmental portals in the wake of protest in Islamabad. The hackers actually attacked more than two dozen of governmental websites overnight and yet they successfully leaked the zip documents of 23,000 bank records (Dawn.com, 2014).

This anti-government protesters said that it was done for political reasons which in reply of :

“We are cataloging the atrocities being committed in Pakistan. We will begin at once assisting the peaceful protesters in Pakistan with every tool and tactic at our disposal. And we will initiate the process of removing every vestige of the Pakistan government from the Internet and shutting down their communications network. And the Pakistani people will then remove this criminal regime from power and lock them in prison where they belong. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif you are hereby dismissed. You will leave power immediately. For the safety and security of your family we suggest that you depart Pakistan at once. This is your only warning.”

Not only the group sent out the message to the Prime Minister but also to the polices whose action is against the protesters as a warning message on YouTube and Twitter.

However, the effort of hacktivists cannot be ignored which can obviously be a threat for the government and this case must be taken serious for public good.

GE13 : The Darkest Day in Malaysia History #blackprofilepicture

According to James Gomez, ‘Social media election’ was quoted by Malaysia’s Prime Minister and Barisan National (BN) leader Najib Razak in general election 2013.  It was argued that Internet was the first mark in Malaysia political development (Lim, 2012). In 2008, BN underestimated social media on online voting behaviour. In fact, social media such as Facebook and Twitter greatly impacted in general election 2013; from 800,000 Facebook users to 13,220,000 and 3,429 Twitter users to 2,000,000  in Malaysia (Forest-interactive.com, 2013). 

The Internet has facilitated Anwar supporters to reform movement which also leads to a new culture that Malaysian choose to pick up information from alternative news websites such as freemalaysia and sangkancil in order to know commentaries unfold event. Fischer (2009) argues that Internet has not only caused the forms of Partai Keadilan Rakyat but also shifted Malaysians to the Internet to access unbiased information. At this point, connectivity is power when everyone can connect to each other in order to access information. 

YouTube has been the social media platform since 2008 for both parties in general election of Malaysia. In the early of 2013, Twitter and Facebook have surprisingly changed the way of voting in Malaysia. However, unhappy and resentful Malaysians had changed Black profile picture on Facebook to express dissatisfaction on GE13 after the result released for few hours (Ong,2013). This social media platform indicates how Malaysian particatipate when one changes Black profile picture after one.

FacebookBlackProfilePictureMalaysiaGeneralElection1

Source from Johsua Ong

Malaysians used Black to express dissatisfaction of 2013 general election due to the unexpectedly magical blackout and recount later on. Moreover, Tweets of exasperation were all over on Twitter after election by posting feelings and images as status from Malaysians (Wan Hong, 2013).

Twitter was the ‘updating’ platform when everyone posting status with images or without- immediacy. Here’s the link to see how Malaysians updated status with images and information about the election on Twitter. See at https://storify.com/bedlamfury/post-ge13-malaysian-rally

Furthermore, Malaysians used recording to upload to YouTube to update the real scene behind of election and events after post- election. Indeed, YouTube was then become one of the strongest social media in political Malaysia in order to let Malaysians know and in a way to express their resentful and angry feelings.

This video indicates that how Malaysians are dissatisfied on the 13th general election in Malaysia.

In a nutshell, the social media has obviously revolutionized the country’s first Malaysia’s general election in 2013 – immediacy, ubiquitous connectivity and participation.